The Ministère de l'Éducation was created on May 13, 1964, in the wake of the publication of the Parent report, through a government proclamation that brought into force the Act to establish the Department of Education and the Superior Council of Education.
On June 20, 1985,the Act respecting the ministère de l'Enseignement supérieur, de la Science et de la Technologie was adopted, amending the Act respecting the ministère de l'Éducation 21 years after its creation. As a result, the Ministère was divided in two: the Ministère de l'Éducation was responsible for preschool, elementary and secondary education, while the Ministère de l'Enseignement supérieur, de la Science et de la Technologie was responsible for college and university education, as well as scientific research and development. On December 13, 1985, the latter became the Ministère de l'Enseignement supérieur et de la Science, and responsibility for technology was transferred to the Ministère de l'Industrie et du Commerce.
On December 1, 1993, eight years after this separation, the Québec government reunited the two ministries with the passing of the Act to amend the Act respecting the Ministère de l’Éducation, creating the Ministère de l'Éducation et de la Science.
On January 11, 1994, responsibility for science was transferred to the Ministère de l'Industrie, du Commerce et de la Technologie. The Ministère de l’Éducation et de la Science once again became the Ministère de l'Éducation. These changes were confirmed with the adoption on June 14, 1994, of the Act to amend the Act respecting the Ministère de l'Industrie, du Commerce et de la Technologie and other legislative provisions.
As a result of the ministerial reorganization that took place on February 18, 2005, the Ministère de l'Éducation became the Ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport.